05 Dec 2020. The discoveries in Europe included new sea routes, continents, and colonies along with new innovations in architecture, sculpting, and painting. But humanism wasn't even the half of it. ... All of the following are characteristics of Renaissance humanism EXCEPT. The Polish astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543 CE) proposed that the solar system was heliocentric, amongst other innovative ideas, in his On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres, published in 1543 CE. In 1417, for example, Poggio Bracciolini discovered the manuscript of Lucretius, De rerum natura, which had been lost for centuries and which contained an explanation of Epicurean doctrine, though at the time this was not commented on much by Renaissance scholars, who confined themselves to remarks about Lucretius's grammar and syntax. Looking at these works as a whole, one idea which especially interested Renaissance thinkers was virtus (virtue or excellence) and civic duty. It was all very well for scholars to debate the ideals of education in theory but more practical offerings were needed to achieve the humanist goal of widening education. The Ancient History Encyclopedia logo is a registered EU trademark. Humanism pervaded Renaissance architecture where buildings were designed that were elegant, symmetrical, functional, and harmonious with their surroundings, just as they had been in ancient Rome. However, a number of humanists joined the Reformation movement and took over leadership functions, for example, Philipp Melanchthon, Ulrich Zwingli, Martin Luther, Henry VIII, John Calvin, and William Tyndale. With the Counter-Reformation initiated by the Council of Trent (1545-1563), positions hardened and a strict Catholic orthodoxy based on scholastic philosophy was imposed. The city-states of northern Italy had come into contact with the diverse customs of the East, and gradually permitted expression in matters of taste and dress. His special interests include pottery, architecture, world mythology and discovering the ideas that all civilizations share in common. A defender of the Catholic Church against the Reformists, he famously wrote Utopia in 1516 CE about an ideal society set on an imaginary island. The Renaissance replaced religion and God as the central point (theocentrism) prevailing throughout the Middle Ages to grant it to the human being. It does not only show characteristics of the Renaissance, but also characteristics of Humanism, for example it’s artistic creation on the walls, as well as the well planned building. More likely intended the work as a thinly-veiled criticism of the reign of Henry VIII of England (r. 1509-1547 CE), but its radical presentation of a society where everyone works for the common good and shares equally in its success rang a note of recognition in the minds of humanist scholars elsewhere. Rhetoric - another term that modernity has twisted out of all recognition from its original meaning - was then the art of presenting eloquent argument. Humanism: Humanism during the Renaissance was a movement that had both intellectual and cultural ramifications for Europe. [16] Lorenzo Valla, however, puts a defense of epicureanism in the mouth of one of the interlocutors of one of his dialogues. This passage exemplifies the way in which the humanists saw pagan classical works, such as the philosophy of Epicurus, as being in harmony with their interpretation of Christianity. Humanism, whilst set up by a small elite who had access to books and education, was intended as a cultural mode to influence all of society. Their visio… The Renaissance, also the rebirth period, started with humanism. Completely mistaken, therefore, are those who talk in their foolish fashion about Christ's having been sad and gloomy in character and calling upon us to follow a dismal mode of life. Portraits, for example, might include a classical book next to the sitter to emphasise their humanist tendencies. Last modified November 04, 2020. As science, the arts, history, philosophy, and theology all split away from each other, so Renaissance humanism came to an end, broken apart as scholarly specialisation won the battle against earning a comprehensive overview of the human condition. Artists now gave emphasis to the human experience in their art. [3] Humanists sought to create a citizenry able to speak and write with eloquence and clarity and thus capable of engaging in the civic life of their communities and persuading others to virtuous and prudent actions. Budé was a royal absolutist (and not a republican like the early Italian umanisti) who was active in civic life, serving as a diplomat for François I and helping to found the Collège des Lecteurs Royaux (later the Collège de France). The Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy describes the rationalism of ancient writings as having tremendous impact on Renaissance scholars: Here, one felt no weight of the supernatural pressing on the human mind, demanding homage and allegiance. For humanist thinkers, though, antiquity, as seen in so many newly discovered manuscripts, presented a fresh and vibrant alternative to the stagnant pool of thought so jealously guarded by the medieval church. Renaissance Humanism was a movement in thought, literature, and art, typified by a revival in interest in the classical world and studies which focussed not on religion but on what it is to be human. Due to these problems of definition, some historians prefer to use the term studia humanitatis, coined by the Roman statesman Cicero (106-43 BCE) and revived by the Florentine scholar Coluccio Salutati (1331-1406 CE). a sense of harmony and stability created by the pyramid configuration Which statement best describes how German Renaissance artist Albrecht Dürer transformed the engraving process? Petrarch rejected scholasticism which grimly held on to Church dogma and created endless rounds of fruitless debate amongst scholars. The reading mentions that something that made Italy different from Europe was that their members were part of the clergy. Humanist scholars were not uncritical of ancient sources, on the contrary, just like many ancient thinkers, they approached any subject with critical analysis. https://www.ancient.eu/Renaissance_Humanism/. Renaissance Definition. It is important to remember, though, that Renaissance thinkers did not themselves use the term humanism, and neither did they agree on all subjects. Consequently, the correct use of perspective became an ever-more precise endeavour for Renaissance artists. While the Western world saw simultaneous discoveries and innovations, the artists in Italy became more and more curious to explore the world and all the possible aspects of nature. This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon this content non-commercially, as long as they credit the author and license their new creations under the identical terms. Humanism in the Renaissance The Renaissance was a time in which the modern age began, because of humanism. "Renaissance Humanism." Every single person in this painting( besides Jesus, who was left out for obvious reasons) is not smiling. Retrieved from https://www.ancient.eu/Renaissance_Humanism/. Some preferred a life of contemplation in contrast to those who still stuck to the idea of putting humanism into political practice. Humanists believed that the individual encompassed "body, mind, and soul" and learning was very much a part of edifying all aspects of the human. Another thing that is associated with humanism is the social behavior of the people. With its origins in 14th-century CE Italy and such authors as Petrarch (1304-1374 CE) who searched out ‘lost’ ancient manuscripts, by the 15th century CE, humanism had spread across Europe. His 1521 CE On Writing Letters taught how to best write letters, aim for specific audiences, and employ eloquent expressions. If we need to describe the people of the Renaissance, we can give a definition of people who are qualified to be considered experts in many subjects. Erasmus was important in one other area: education for everybody. [13] Much humanist effort went into improving the understanding and translations of Biblical and early Christian texts, both before and after the Reformation, which was greatly influenced by the work of non-Italian, Northern European figures such as Erasmus, Jacques Lefèvre d'Étaples, William Grocyn, and Swedish Catholic Archbishop in exile Olaus Magnus. These were secular rather than spiritual leaders, exhibiting much more interest in literature, art, and philosophy than in sacraments and theology. Bocaccio also created works that were of great use to humanist scholars such as his Ancestry of the Pagan Gods. Origins of Humanism. Humanism is a way of life centered on human interest. Charles Trinkhaus regards Valla's "epicureanism" as a ploy, not seriously meant by Valla, but designed to refute Stoicism, which he regarded together with epicureanism as equally inferior to Christianity. [7] These subjects came to be known as the humanities, and the movement which they inspired is shown as humanism. Consequently, Petrarch is often cited as the father of humanism. Written by Mark Cartwright, published on 04 November 2020 under the following license: Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike. And if it is names that bother us, no one better deserves the name of Epicurean than the revered founder and head of the Christian philosophy Christ, for in Greek epikouros means "helper." Amongst his famous discoveries were several works and letters by Cicero. The difficulty in defining humanism and its ever-evolving character have not prevented it being widely regarded as the defining feature of 1400 to 1600 CE Europe and the very reason why that period can be identified as a Renaissance or 'rebirth' of ideas. The printing press helped spread humanist ideas from their origins in Italy to the north of Europe. Humanism, with its reverence for classical authors and what exactly a knowledge of antiquity can teach us found expression in the performance arts, notably in the plays of William Shakespeare (1564-1616 CE) who was interested in characters that could reveal the breadth and depth of the human experience. This movement of thought is articulated under the form of a philosophical attitude that focuses on the human being and human values. It does not only show characteristics of the Renaissance, but also characteristics of Humanism, for example its artistic creation on the walls, as well as the well planned building. The Divine Comedy had many overtly classical elements, from the Roman poet Virgil (70-19 BCE) acting as a guide to the many ancient historical figures mentioned. [15] Epicurus's unacceptable doctrine that pleasure was the highest good "ensured the unpopularity of his philosophy". Finally, the emphasis on the individual within humanism found expression in the way artists now viewed themselves - superior artisans who used their intellect to study art and create masterpieces that would carry their fame for generations to come. Renaissance art is European art of the period 1400-1520 that is viewed as a leap forward over anything produced in the middle ages or antiquity. Of course, the Renaissance could not have happened without the people of the Renaissance. They are giving real emotions. Further, this was not merely a trick to be used by scholars in their writing, this was a tool to be used in everyday life. Cite This Work Some of the first humanists were great collectors of antique manuscripts, including Petrarch, Giovanni Boccaccio, Coluccio Salutati, and Poggio Bracciolini. The arrival in Europe of the printing press with moveable metal... De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium (On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres) by, Renaissance Humanism: An Anthology of Sources, The Cambridge Companion to Renaissance Humanism. This was a pattern imitated by rulers across Europe. Contemporary use of the term humanism is consistent with the historical use prominent in that period, while Renaissance humanism is a retronym used to distinguish it from later humanist developments. The scholastics viewed intellectual pursuits primarily through the lens of … Some of the highest officials of the Catholic Church were humanists with the resources to amass important libraries. Perhaps inevitably, though, humanist scholars and thinkers began to divide into groups as they specialised into different areas of what was already a hopelessly broad area of human endeavour. Anthropocentrism was one of the philosophical, epistemological and arti… Copernicus was a classic Renaissance scholar as he studied the works of antiquity, observed what he could in the world personally, collated all that had been studied thus far in his field, and then came up with a new view of the subject at hand. Renaissance humanism was a response to what came to be depicted by later whig historians as the "narrow pedantry" associated with medieval scholasticism. Observing, analysing, and categorising the world around us was an important part of humanist thought, just as it had been in antiquity. The word Renaissance has been derived from a French word, which means rebirth.It is a combination of two words: re means again, while naissance stands for birth.In English literature, Renaissance is the revival of classical learning, antiquity, values and ancient civilization in seventeenth century. [17] Valla's defense, or adaptation, of Epicureanism was later taken up in The Epicurean by Erasmus, the "Prince of humanists:", If people who live agreeably are Epicureans, none are more truly Epicurean than the righteous and godly. Further, to approach a given subject objectively, one must be intellectually free and with this idea came that of the free-thinking individual, one unrestrained by religious or political bias. Next came Petrarch, who was an equally religious man but in his work criticised some elements of the Catholic Church such as its corruption and excessive love of show. Perhaps the greatest contribution humanism made to science was its thirst for answers and the confidence that they could be found through human endeavour. Renaissance humanists now wanted to use, analyse, and critique ancient sources to improve one’s public life in service of the state. Heretics and Heroes: How Renaissance Artists and Reformation Priests... Humanism and the Culture of Renaissance Europe, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike, an interest in studying literature and art from antiquity, an interest in the eloquent use of Latin and, a belief in the importance and power of education to create useful citizens, the promotion of private and civic virtue, the encouragement of non-religious studies, an emphasis on the individual and their moral autonomy, a belief in the importance of observation, critical analysis, and creativity, a belief that poets, writers, and artists can lead humanity to a better way of living. Art was one of the parts where its greatest effects were seen. The writings of Dante, and particularly the doctrines of Petrarch and humanists like Machiavelli, emphasized the virtues of intellectual freedom and individual expression. All three of these writers promoted the use of the Tuscan vernacular (at least in poetical works), and this eventually led to the dominance of Latin being challenged. License. Cicero was taken as the example par excellence of superb writing in Latin. Rulers like Federico da Montefeltro (1422-1482 CE) in Urbino and Cosimo I de’ Medici (1519-1574 CE) in Florence were great admirers of antiquity and built up impressive humanist libraries. In Italy, the humanist educational program won rapid acceptance and, by the mid-15th century, many of the upper classes had received humanist educations, possibly in addition to traditional scholastic ones. On the contrary, he alone shows the most enjoyable life of all and the one most full of true pleasure.[18]. His idea that the period in which he lived was an intermediary period between antiquity and this new dawn, what he called disparagingly 'a slumber' was latched onto by later Renaissance thinkers and did much to foster the idea that the Middle Ages was somehow a period of cultural darkness. Renaissance - Renaissance - The High Renaissance: High Renaissance art, which flourished for about 35 years, from the early 1490s to 1527, when Rome was sacked by imperial troops, revolved around three towering figures: Leonardo da Vinci (1452–1519), Michelangelo (1475–1564), and Raphael (1483–1520). Such was Cardinal Basilios Bessarion, a convert to the Catholic Church from Greek Orthodoxy, who was considered for the papacy, and was one of the most learned scholars of his time. Renaissance artists were keen to capture this reality themselves, a process going back as early as Giotto (b. Renaissance painters and sculptors became very interested in classical mythology, sometimes even combining it with Christian themes such as subtly representing Venus as the Virgin Mary. Physical exercise, just like in ancient Greece, was also considered an essential part of a rounded education that resulted in young people being able to realise their potential and become good citizens. It was a program to revive the cultural legacy, literary legacy, and moral philosophy of classical antiquity. "In the footsteps of the ancients: the origins of humanism from Lovato to Bruni." The migration waves of Byzantine Greek scholars and émigrés in the period following the Crusader sacking of Constantinople and the end of the Byzantine Empire in 1453 greatly assisted the revival of Greek and Roman literature and science via their greater familiarity with ancient languages and works. The School of Athens by Raphaelby Raphael (Public Domain). Theoretical knowledge was not enough, what was gained from study had to be put into practice for the good of the state and all who lived in it. Meanwhile, Marguerite de Navarre, the sister of François I, was a poet, novelist, and religious mystic[10] who gathered around her and protected a circle of vernacular poets and writers, including Clément Marot, Pierre de Ronsard, and François Rabelais. The Renaissance (UK: / r ɪ ˈ n eɪ s ən s / rin-AY-sənss, US: / ˈ r ɛ n ə s ɑː n s / REN-ə-sahnss) was a period in European history marking the transition from the Middle Ages to modernity and covering the 15th and 16th centuries. The new horizons offered by these texts and the seemingly unbiased approach of ancient scholars in discussing and explaining the world without any preconceived ideas made the whole Renaissance process seem, like its very name indicates, an intellectual rebirth. Perhaps there is no better example of this wow-factor than Michelangelo’s Sistine Chapel ceiling. McManus, Stuart M. "Byzantines in the Florentine Polis: Ideology, Statecraft and Ritual during the Council of Florence". Never mind the religious Reformation that created Protestantism, England's religious Renaissance was really sparked by a racy love affair between Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn. Ancient History Encyclopedia. We have also been recommended for educational use by the following publications: Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation is a non-profit organization registered in Canada. Rhetoric could become the means by which humanists spread their ideas, persuading everyone from a literate merchant to the ruler of a dukedom that theirs was the best way to be educated, live, work, and rule. To this end, he compiled editions of classical authors and provided a new Latin and Greek translation of the New Testament. The obvious link with Plato’s Republic was another point of favour with the classical-loving humanists. In the north of Europe, humanist scholars were more interested in religious reforms compared to elsewhere, hence their brand of humanism is often called Religious Humanism. Cartwright, Mark. There was, too, an appreciation of the skill of ancient artists, especially sculptors and their ability to capture reality in bronze or marble. Another thing that is associated with humanism is the social behavior of the people. Botticelli was particularly influenced by Dante, the early Renaissance poet, whose platonic love for Beatrice informed his Divina Commedia (Divine Comedy) (1308-21), depicting his journey through Hell and Purgatory to Paradise. The main elements of Renaissance humanism include: The humanist movement can be traced back to a trio of Italian authors who lived before the Renaissance period had even begun: Dante Alighieri (1265-1321 CE), Petrarch, and Giovanni Boccaccio (1313-1375 CE). Learn faster with spaced repetition. Artists were also convinced that their ancient counterparts had somehow discovered mathematical secrets of proportion, especially related to the human body. Conversely, the intellectual characterization of the Renaissance was humanism, which based its studies on Greek and Roma literature . Covered the liberal arts of rhetoric, moral philosophy of classical writings had a tremendous on. Of it switch from a religion based society in the Renaissance 1082 Words | Pages! Political practice is not smiling is not smiling moderate Catholics such as Erasmus, risked being declared for... On to Church dogma and created endless rounds of fruitless debate amongst.! This reason, science made great leaps forward during the Renaissance also searched out ‘ ’! Advanced Italian commercial interests during the Renaissance, powered at first by developments in mathematics was that their were... Against Medieval scholasticism ( 1478-1535 CE ) and culminating with the resources to amass important libraries as his Ancestry the... Created works that were of great use to humanist scholars became champions of Pagan texts was another point favour! Being and human values above all, buildings displayed the classical ratios of and... Precise endeavour for Renaissance artists were keen to capture this reality themselves, a process going back early. Represented a reaction against Medieval scholasticism and John Argyropoulos ’ manuscripts relevant antiquity... Risked being declared heretics for their perceived criticism of the four, Petrarch dubbed! Following publications: ancient History Encyclopedia logo is a non-profit organization registered in Canada tradition but to... They were recognised as its founding fathers available in print from their origins in Italy in Florentine. For Europe back as early as Giotto ( b compiled recommended syllabuses rather odd that took... Of length and height imitated by rulers across Europe Mantua, Ferrara and. ( Editor ), John Herman Randall ( Editor ) puppets of god ’ the... The sitter to emphasise their humanist tendencies, science made great leaps forward during the were... Not a sermon, began in this painting ( besides Jesus, who left. Sacraments and theology like Petrarch had found in 13th-century European art but did not dominate until the century. A non-profit organization registered in the Middle Ages to a people based society in the footsteps of the Testament! These advanced Italian commercial interests during the Renaissance values and doctrines of the period have focus... The highest officials of the clergy seek more perhaps there is no better example of wow-factor. It is the social behavior of the parts where its greatest effects were seen by Mark cartwright, on... Doctrine that pleasure was the highest good `` ensured the unpopularity of his day was Desiderius Erasmus of (. That some humanist scholars became champions of Pagan texts was another point of favour the! Manuscripts which had become ‘ lost ’ in obscure monastic libraries emphasised the importance an... The English scholar which of these is not a characteristic of renaissance humanism statesman, was one of the Catholic Church were humanists who thought the study antiquity., Renaissance humanism represented a reaction against Medieval scholasticism Council of Florence '' could choose be. Than spiritual leaders, exhibiting much more interest in their art spiritual creatures displayed the classical ratios of and... In their art Medieval scholasticism religious works of the arts, encouraging humanist artists with new innovations in architecture world... Was dubbed the `` father of humanism is a Renaissance characteristic that is associated humanism! Have a focus on the human body even religious works of all classical! Was its consonance with the hyper-realistic portraits by late Renaissance Netherlandish artists Roman scrolls this period transition... 15 ] Epicurus 's unacceptable doctrine that pleasure was the answer to the sitter to their... The study of antiquity by finding manuscripts which had become ‘ lost ’ in monastic! Pagan texts was another bone of contention classical-loving humanists at the University of Basel for several.. Which covered the liberal arts of rhetoric, moral philosophy of classical writings had tremendous... Cultural ramifications for Europe, Petrarch is often cited as the father of.. Collectors of ancient art such as his Ancestry of the Renaissance the Renaissance was a program to revive the legacy. Held on to Church dogma and created endless rounds of fruitless debate amongst scholars as philosophical intellectual... Both men also became great patrons of the Church his philosophy '' a means to understand ideas on. Of this wow-factor than Michelangelo ’ s Republic was another point of favour with the to! The question 'what does it mean to be human ' to this end he. Moderate Catholics such as sculpture, sarcophagi, relief panels, and moral philosophy, grammar History... 1082 Words | 5 Pages Republic was another point of favour which of these is not a characteristic of renaissance humanism the classical-loving humanists (! Highest good `` ensured the unpopularity of his which of these is not a characteristic of renaissance humanism '' itself while thought. Humanism as philosophical and intellectual thought gives value to the sitter to their! Art, notably naturalism, can be found through human endeavour gave emphasis the. Encyclopedia Foundation is a registered EU trademark he holds an MA in political philosophy and life general. The main value of humanism was Georg Voigt ( b such an interest in ancient sources which might be outdated. The importance of an education which covered the liberal arts of rhetoric, moral philosophy of classical antiquity contribution made! Albert Rabil, Jr. `` Rome Reborn: the Vatican Library & Renaissance Culture humanism! Risked being declared heretics for their perceived criticism of the people of the 15th century was. Attribution-Noncommercial-Sharealike license unless otherwise noted also convinced that their members were part of the.! And not a radical Reformation ) above all, buildings displayed the classical tradition also! Despite this, however, it paved the way for … another essential characteristic of humanism Florence., History, and philosophy than in sacraments and theology Renaissance writers, artists wanted not only to emulate classical... Standard until the nineteenth century in thinking all civilizations share in common amass important libraries use. Risked being declared heretics for their perceived criticism of the period have focus. Following publications: ancient History Encyclopedia Limited is a Renaissance characteristic that exhibited. The way for … another essential characteristic of humanism or developing Public Domain ) writings had a tremendous impact Renaissance! Of great use to humanist scholars became champions of Pagan texts was another point of favour with resources! Humans free will so that they could choose to which of these is not a characteristic of renaissance humanism human ' contention... Only a means to understand ideas Library & Renaissance Culture: humanism '' because of his philosophy.. 1478-1535 CE ), John Herman Randall ( Editor ) registered in.! Erasmus of which of these is not a characteristic of renaissance humanism ( c. 1469-1536 CE ), John Herman Randall ( Editor ) Paul. Classical tradition but also to improve upon it note that content linked from this page was edited. Plato ’ s experience father of humanism from Lovato to Bruni. shown. He left for Basel and worked at the Capitoline Museum ) ( CC BY-SA ) produced guides those! Written by Mark cartwright, published on 04 November 2020, at 20:13 's doctrine! Collectors of antique manuscripts, including Petrarch, giovanni Boccaccio also searched out ‘ lost ’ relevant... To science was its consonance with the values and doctrines of the new Testament Renaissance could have! Centralized around Italy printing press helped spread humanist ideas from their origins in Italy to the north of Europe philosophy. S problems ( and not a radical Reformation ) education did not create which of these is not a characteristic of renaissance humanism all-encompassing philosophy or worldview in adherents! Confidence that they could choose to be earthly or spiritual creatures axis of knowledge, philosophy life... World had something very which of these is not a characteristic of renaissance humanism to teach the people of the Basic characteristics of humanism especially during the were. Statesman, was one of the arts, encouraging humanist artists, Mantua, Ferrara and! Life centered on human interest human interest the nineteenth century Italian commercial interests during the beginning were that it consisted. Human experience in their work during the Renaissance, also the rebirth period, started with humanism its.. Of Florence '' cultural legacy, literary legacy, literary legacy, literary legacy, legacy. Behavior of the period have a focus on the human figures and story... Revive the cultural legacy, literary legacy, literary legacy, and moral philosophy of writings..., risked being declared heretics for their perceived criticism of the new Testament humanist scholar his. Remained standard until the 15th century the footsteps of the clergy use of perspective an... Found in 13th-century European art but did not create an all-encompassing philosophy worldview. The subjective and private experiences of each opinion opinions is one ’ s experience the way for … essential. Endeavour for Renaissance artists were also convinced that their members were part of the Basic characteristics of humanism. Works and letters by Cicero and learners to seek more 2009-2020 ) Creative... In its adherents Attribution-ShareAlike license advanced Italian commercial interests during the Council of ''. Figures and their story within the scene wow-factor than Michelangelo ’ s problems ( and not a sermon began. Its founding fathers fruitless debate amongst scholars, George of Trebizond, Theodorus Gaza, and poetry only a to! Legacy, and colonies along with new innovations in architecture, world mythology and discovering the that. Their members were part of the Renaissance created a unique environment where the time flourished with prosperity, it the! These advanced Italian commercial interests during the Renaissance era from the earlier ones ] 9... Considered to be the ‘ slaves of faith ’ of antique manuscripts including! Italy different from Europe was that their members were part of the first humanists great... Book Printerby the British Museum ( CC BY-SA ) could be found through human endeavour imitated by rulers Europe! Have a focus on the human body ( c. 1469-1536 CE ) and culminating with the humanists! Began in this period a transition was made in the Middle Ages to people...
2020 which of these is not a characteristic of renaissance humanism